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CBSE Class 10 Social Science Chapter 1 Political Science-Power sharing class 10 notes in PDF are available for download on Latestnews-24.com. The best site for studying presently gives Power sharing class 10 Notes most recent section savvy notes for the CBSE board tests and school-based yearly assessments. Class 10 Social Science notes on Chapter 1 Political Science-Power sharing are likewise accessible for download.
Political Theory Power sharing class 10 Notes Social Science
Download CBSE class 10th revision notes for Chapter 1 Political Science Power sharing in PDF design free of charge. Download notes for class 10 Notes and gets a score high in tests. These are the Political Science-Power sharing class 10 Notes arranged by a group of master educators. The correction notes help you cover the entire section in minutes. Overhauling notes on test days is probably the best tip suggested by educators during test days.
CBSE Class 10 Revision Notes Political Science Chapter 1 Power Sharing
- With this part, we continue the visit through vote based system that we began a year ago.
- A wise sharing of power among a lawmaking body, leader, and legal executive is vital to the plan of popular government.
- We start with two stories from Belgium and Sri Lanka.
- Both these accounts are about how vote based systems handle requests for power-sharing.
Forms of power sharing:
- The idea of power sharing has rise in opposition to the notions of united political power.
- For a long time, it was believed that all power of a government must consist in one person or group of a person located at 1 place.
- One basic principle of power sharing is that people are the authority of all political power.
- In a good democratic government, due respect is given to distinct groups and views that exist in a society.
- Everyone has a voice in the build of public politics.
- Therefore, it follows that in a democracy political power should be distributed among as many citizens as possible.
Let us look at some of the most common arrangements that we have or will come across.
- Power is shared among different ministry of the government, such as the legislature, executive, and judiciary. Let us call this even distribution of power because it allows different ministry of the government placed at the same level to perform different powers.
- Power can be shared among governments at different levels – a general government for the whole country and governments at the local or regional level. The distribution of higher and lower levels of government is called the vertical distribution of power.
- Power may also be shared among different social groups, such as the religious and linguistic groups. ‘Community government’ is a good example of this arrangement.
- Power sharing arrangement can also be seen in the way political parties, pressure groups and movements control or force those in power.
Story of Belgium
Belgium is a small country in Europe with a population of over 1 crore. Of the country’s total population, 59% speak Dutch, 40% of people speak French and the remaining 1% speak the German language. The minority French-speaking community was rich and powerful, so they got the benefit of economic development and education. This created tensions between the Dutch-speaking and French-speaking communities during the 1950s and 1960s.
Accommodation in Belgium
In Belgium, the government managed the community difference very well. Between 1970 and 1993, Belgian leaders revise their constitution 4 times and came up with a new plan to run the government.
Here are some of the elements of the Belgian plan.
- The Constitution require that the number of Dutch and French-speaking ministers shall be equal in the Central Government. Some special laws require the support of the majority of members from each linguistic group. Thus, no single community can make decisions independently.
- The state governments are not dependent to the Central Government.
- Brussels has a separate government in which both communities have equal representation.
- Apart from the Central and the State Government, there is a third kind of government. This ‘community government’ is elected by people belonging to one language community – Dutch, French and German-speaking – no matter where they live. This government has the power like cultural, educational and language-related issues.
The Belgium plan was very complicated but it helped to avoid civic dispute between the two major communities.
Story of Sri Lanka
Now, let’s take the situation of Sri Lanka. It is an island nation having a population of Approx. 2 crores. Sri Lanka has a distinct population. The major social groups are the Sinhala-speakers (74%) and the Tamil-speakers (18%). Among Tamils, there are two subgroups, “Sri Lankan Tamils” and “Indian Tamils”.
In Sri Lanka, the Sinhala community enjoyed the bigger majority and enforce its will on the whole country.
Majoritarianism in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka developed as an independent country in 1948. The Sinhala community was in the majority so they had formed the government. They also followed advantageous policies that favored Sinhala candidates for university positions and government jobs. These quotas taken by the government continuously increased the feeling of disaffection among the Sri Lankan Tamils.
Sri Lankan Tamils sense that constitution and government policies oppose them equal political rights, discriminated against them in getting jobs and other opportunities, and ignored their importance. Due to this, the relationship between the Sinhala and Tamil communities becomes poor.
Sri Lankan Tamils launched parties and struggles for the recognition of Tamil as an official language, for regional autonomy, and equality of opportunity in securing education and jobs. But their demand was repeatedly denied by the government.
The distrust between the two communities turned into widespread conflict and turned into a CIVIL WAR. As a result, thousands of people of both communities have been killed. Many families were forced to leave the country as refugees and many more lost their livelihoods. The civil war ended in 2009 and caused a terrible setback to the social, cultural, and economic life of the country.
What have you learned from the Stories of Belgium and Sri Lanka?
- Both countries are democracies but they dealt differently with the concept of power sharing.
- In Belgium, the leaders have realised that the unity of the country is possible only by respecting the feelings and interests of different communities and regions. This resulted in mutually acceptable arrangements for sharing power.
- Sri Lanka shows that, if a majority community wants to force its dominance over others and refuses to share power, it can undermine the unity of the country.
Why is power sharing desirable?
You will find the answer to this question in the points below.
- Power sharing is good because it helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups.
- The second reason is that, a democratic rule involves sharing power with those affected by its exercise, and who have to live with its effects. People have a right to be consulted on how they are to be governed.
Let us call the first set of reasons Prudential and the second moral. The prudential reasons stress that power-sharing will bring out better outcomes, whereas the moral reasons emphasize the act of power-sharing as valuable.
We have compiled History, Geography, Political Science, and Geography notes in one place. You can access them by visiting CBSE Class 10 Social Science Notes at BYJU’S. Keep learning and stay tuned for further updates on CBSE and other competitive exams. Download BYJU’S App and subscribe to the YouTube channel to access interactive Maths and Science videos.
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