What are the Functional Units of Computer | Explain Functional Units of Computer System? 2021

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A computer is a group of hardware and software resources that combine together and offer different functionalities to the person. Hardware is the physical part of a computer like a processor, memory devices, monitor, keyboard, etc. while the software is the group of programs or commands that are essential by the hardware resources to work properly.

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There are a small number of basic components that give support to the working cycle of a computer i.e. the Input- Process- Output Cycle and these are called the functional units of a computer. It requires some input, processes that input, and generates the preferred output. The input unit takes the input, the central processing unit (CPU) does the processing of data and the output unit produces the output. The memory unit stores the data and commands during the processing.

Digital Computer: A digital computer is a programmable machine that reads the binary data passed as commands, processes this binary data, and demonstrates a calculated digital output. In short Digital computers are those that work on digital statistics.

if we describe in one line what the Functional Units of a Computer are: – A computer consists of five functionally self-regulating main parts input, memory, arithmetic logic unit (ALU), output, and control unit.

List of Functional Units of Computer

  • Input Unit
  • Central Processing Unit
  • Arithmetic and Logic Unit
  • Control Unit
  • Memory unit
  • Output Unit

Explain Functional Units of a Computer System

  • Input Unit: The input unit consists of input devices that are connected to the computer. These devices get commands and translate them into binary language that the computers know. Some of the common input devices are the keyboard, mouse, scanner, etc.
  • Central Processing Unit (CPU): Once the command is entered into the computer by the input tools, the processor processes it. The CPU is called the mind of the computer because it is the control center of the computer. It first takes commands from memory and then translates them so as to know what is to be done.
  • Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU): The ALU, as its name hint execute mathematical calculations and takes logical decisions. The arithmetic calculation consists of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Logical decisions involve the assessment of two data items to see which one is bigger or smaller or equal.
  • Control Unit: The Control unit organizes and controls the data stream in and out of the CPU and also controls all the functions of ALU, memory registers, and also input/output units. It is also responsible for carrying out all the commands stored in the program. It interprets the fetched command, reads it, and drives control signals to input/output devices until the necessary process is done correctly by ALU and memory.
  • Memory unit: The Memory unit can be pointed out as the storage area in which commands are reserved which are running, and that hold data required by the running programs. The Memory unit can be classified in 2 ways that are, primary memory and secondary memory. It enables a processor to contact running carrying out applications and services that are provisionally stored in a definite memory location.
    • Primary storage is the fastest memory that works at electronic speeds. Primary memory includes a huge number of semiconductor storage cells, able of storing a bit of information. The word length of a computer is between 16 bits to 64 bits. It is also famous for the volatile form of memory, which means when the computer is shut down, no matter which program contained in RAM is lost.
    • Cache memory is also a type of memory that is used to obtain data very soon. They are extremely united with the processor. The mainly general examples of primary memory are RAM and ROM. Secondary memory is used when a huge quantity of data and programs have to be stored for a long-term basis. It is also known as the Non-volatile memory form of memory, which means the data is stored eternally regardless of shut down. The mainly ordinary examples of secondary memory are magnetic disks, magnetic tapes, and optical disks.
  • Output Unit: The output unit consists of output devices that are connected with the computer. It translates the binary data coming from the CPU to the human logical form. The common output devices are monitor, printer, etc.

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Operating steps are

  • Programs are located in the memory & generally get these throughout the I/P unit.
  • Implementation of the program begins when the PC is set to point at the primary command of the program.
  • Contents of PC are transmitting to MAR and a Read Control Signal is drive to the memory.
  • After the time required to contact the memory elapses, the address word is read out of the memory and weighed down into the MDR.
  • Now contents of MDR are transmitted to the IR & now the command is ready to be decoded and perform.
  • If the instruction engages a process by the ALU, it is compulsory to acquire the mandatory operands.
  • An operand in the memory is obtained by sending its address to MAR & begin a read cycle.
  • When the operand has been understood from the memory to the MDR, it is a shift from MDR to the ALU.
  • After one or two such constant cycles, the ALU can carry out the preferred function.
  • If the outcome of this process is to be stored in the memory, the answer is sent to MDR.
  • Address of the location where the answer is stored is sent to MAR & a write cycle is started.
  • The contents of the PC are incremented so that the PC points to the next command that is to be accomplished.

FAQ on Functional Units of Computer

What are the Functional Units of Computer

Ans. A computer consists of five functionally self-regulating main parts input, memory, arithmetic logic unit (ALU), output, and control unit.

Explain Functional Units of Computer System

In the above we deeply describe the Explain Functional Units of a Computer System

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